Ongoing Research on Memory Demonstrates That We Are Indeed Fearfully and Wonderfully Made – 5



We continue to summarize the research article of Camina and Guell on how ongoing research understands our memory. Finally, they tackled long-term memory.


Long-term memory refers to unlimited storage information to be maintained for long periods, even for life. There are two types of long-term memory: declarative or explicit memory and non-declarative or implicit memory.


Explicit memory refers to information that can be consciously evoked. There are two types of declarative memory: episodic memory and semantic memory.


For its part, implicit memory encompasses all unconscious memories, such as certain abilities or skills. There are four types of implicit memory, including procedural, associative, non-associative, and priming.


Camina and Guell go into much detail, outline the parts of the brain response for all these types of long-term memory. Here is a summary:

  • Declarative / Episodic memory - the ability to learn, store, and retrieve information about unique personal experiences that occur in daily life.

  • Declarative / Semantic memory - the ability to represent concepts in language. This ability allows us not only to disseminate conceptual knowledge to others, but also to manipulate, associate, and combine these concepts.

  • Non-Declarative / Procedural – Habits and Skill - participates in recalling motor and executive skills that are necessary to perform a task. It is an executive system that guides activity and usually works at an unconscious level.

  • Non-Declarative / Associative Memory: Classical and Operant Conditioning - refers to the storage and retrieval of information through association with other information. Classical - learning between stimuli and behavior. Operant Conditioning - new behaviors develop in terms of their consequences.

  • Non-Declarative / Non-associative Memory: Habituation and Sensitization - newly learned behavior through repeated exposure to an isolated stimulus.

  • Non-Declarative / Priming - newly learned behavior through repeated exposure to an isolated stimulus.

Carmina and Guell conclude their article outlining more answers that need to be found in future studies. While I am thankful for the work of these researchers, I know we will never fully understand the depth and complexity of God’s creation. Our purpose is to understand how a person is thinking to maximize learning. Nonetheless, without fully understanding one can rejoice in God’s creation. Further, we can pray for wisdom as we work with our families.


https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00438/full?fbclid=IwAR1IW1lexED4310bvW5yr7Wt-i99TeEVktsVQ6sdoCONFQhxLKqQFnWPsMI


I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Marvelous are Your works, And that my soul knows very well.

Psalm 139:14